Obesity has been recognized as a disease by the American Medical Association in 2013. Bariatric and metabolic surgery is a proven, effective and enduring treatment for obese patients in need. It is important to keep in mind that these are procedures not recommended for patients with a healthy BMI (body mass index).
The Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass, often called gastric bypass, is considered the ‘gold standard’ of weight loss surgery. It involves changing the shape of the stomach, modifying the way the small intestine handles eaten food.
The Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy, often called the sleeve, is performed by removing approximately 80 percent of the stomach. The remaining stomach is a tubular pouch that resembles a banana, which limits the amount of food being eaten.
Often called “the band,” involves an inflatable band that is placed around the upper portion of the stomach, creating a small stomach pouch above the band, and the rest of the stomach below the band. This procedure also restricts the amount of food being eaten.
The Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch is a procedure with two components. First, a smaller, tubular stomach pouch is created by removing a portion of the stomach, very similar to the sleeve gastrectomy. Next, a large portion of the small intestine is bypassed. Both of these procedures restrict the amount of food being eaten.
WHAT IS A BARIATRIC PROCEDURE?
Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by restricting the amount of food the stomach can hold, causing malabsorption of nutrients, or by a combination of both gastric restriction and malabsorption. Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques, like laparoscopic surgery.
The most common bariatric surgery procedures are the gastric bypass, a sleeve gastrectomy, an adjustable gastric band, and a biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Each surgery has its own advantages and disadvantages.
There are two components to the procedure. First, a small stomach pouch, approximately one ounce or 30 milliliters in volume, is created by dividing the top of the stomach from the rest of the stomach. Next, the first portion of the small intestine is divided, and the bottom end of the divided small intestine is brought up and connected to the newly created small stomach pouch. The procedure is completed by connecting the top portion of the divided small intestine to the small intestine further down so that the stomach acids and digestive enzymes from the bypassed stomach and first portion of small intestine will eventually mix with the food.
The gastric bypass works by several mechanisms. First, similar to most bariatric procedures, the newly created stomach pouch is considerably smaller and facilitates significantly smaller meals, which translates into less calories consumed.
Additionally, because there is less digestion of food by the smaller stomach pouch, and there is a segment of small intestine that would normally absorb calories as well as nutrients that no longer has food going through it, there is probably to some degree less absorption of calories and nutrients.
Most importantly, the rerouting of the food stream produces changes in gut hormones that promote satiety, suppress hunger, and reverse one of the primary mechanisms by which obesity induces type 2 diabetes.
This procedure works by several mechanisms. First, the new stomach pouch holds a considerably smaller volume than the normal stomach and helps to significantly reduce the amount of food, and thus calories, that can be consumed. The greater impact, however, seems to be the effect the surgery has on gut hormones that impact a number of factors including hunger, satiety, and blood sugar control.
Short term studies show that the sleeve is as effective as the roux-en-Y gastric bypass in terms of weight loss and improvement or remission of diabetes. There is also evidence that suggests that the sleeve, similar to the gastric bypass, is effective in improving type 2 diabetes independent of the weight loss.
ADJUSTABLE GASTRIC BAND
The common explanation of how this device works is that with the smaller stomach pouch, eating just a small amount of food will satisfy hunger and promote the feeling of fullness. The feeling of fullness depends upon the size of the opening between the pouch and the remainder of the stomach created by the gastric band. The size of the stomach opening can be adjusted by filling the band with sterile saline, which is injected through a port placed under the skin.
Reducing the size of the opening is done gradually over time with repeated adjustments or “fills.”
The notion that the band is a restrictive procedure (works by restricting how much food can be consumed per meal and by restricting the emptying of the food through the band) has been challenged by studies that show the food passes rather quickly through the band, and that absence of hunger or feeling of being satisfied was not related to food remaining in the pouch above the band. What is known is that there is no malabsorption; the food is digested and absorbed as it would be normally.
The clinical impact of the band seems to be that it reduces hunger, which helps the patients to decrease the amount of calories that are consumed.
BILIOPANCREATIC DIVERSION WITH DUODENAL SWITCH (BPD/DS)
The duodenum, or the first portion of the small intestine, is divided just past the outlet of the stomach. A segment of the distal (last portion) small intestine is then brought up and connected to the outlet of the newly created stomach, so that when the patient eats, the food goes through a newly created tubular stomach pouch and empties directly into the last segment of the small intestine. Roughly three-fourths of the small intestine is bypassed by the food stream.
The bypassed small intestine, which carries the bile and pancreatic enzymes that are necessary for the breakdown and absorption of protein and fat, is reconnected to the last portion of the small intestine so that they can eventually mix with the food stream.
Similar to the other surgeries described above, the BPD/DS initially helps to reduce the amount of food that is consumed; however, over time this effect lessens and patients are able to eventually consume near “normal” amounts of food.
Unlike the other procedures, there is a significant amount of small bowel that is bypassed by the food stream.
Additionally, the food does not mix with the bile and pancreatic enzymes until very far down the small intestine. This results in a significant decrease in the absorption of calories and nutrients (particularly protein and fat) as well as nutrients and vitamins dependent on fat for absorption (fat soluble vitamins and nutrients). Lastly, the BPD/DS, similar to the gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, affects guts hormones in a manner that impacts hunger and satiety as well as blood sugar control. The BPD/DS is considered to be the most effective surgery for the treatment of diabetes among those that are described here.
Dr. Jaime Ponce de Leon
Dr. Jaime Ponce de Leon Palomares is a weigh-loss surgeon in Mexico, well know on the bariatric field. He has been practicing in Tijuana, Mexico for over 22 years, he receives training as a general surgeon in “Hospital General de Tijuana” as a laparoscopic gastroenterologist.
Mexico Bariatric Surgeon
- Over 20 Years of Experiece
- Excelent at performing complex revisión surgeries
- Training in France and US
Frequently Asked Questions
MEX (664) 900